Research: Urban Wildlife

Based upon some of the issues I raised during my recent video project, I have started to look more specifically at urban wildlife. In the develop of my wildlife portfolio, I want to explore as many options as possible before I can begin to find a more specific areas of study and photographic interest.

At this stage, it is more practical to consider the possibility of urban wildlife, although it is much harder to track animals adapted to urban environments, due to their sense of self preservation and shyness towards human interaction, it also (at least at this stage) much more accessible to find recent sightings and potential areas for repeat visits.

Throughout other projects, I have started to become more aware of the presence of wildlife, often in outskirts of urban environments. With the ever increasing priority towards urban development, especially in regards to housing projects, various life forms are being forced to adapt and survival against the odds.

To begin with, I want to become more informed about urban wildlife and how this field is being discussed and/or represented in popular media formats.

I started by finding a detailed definition of urban ecosystems upon BBC nature’s website. Much of this was fairly familiar to me, however, I found this to be constructive in outlining various areas to look for or consider for observation and focal points of urban wildlife photography. I also found it quite interesting in developing my understanding of how animals adapt and gain advantages from surviving in urban environments.

Urban habitats are areas dominated by human activities and human constructions. These include towns, cities and associated landscapes, such as landfill sites. It can almost be described as a patchwork of other habitats where buildings are artificial cliffs, sewers and drains are waterways, and parks, gardens and brownfield sites provide forests and meadows. Animals which have adapted to the urban environment are tolerant of the light and noise generated by human activity, and take advantage of the heat and the abundant food sources.

The next stage was to find signs of media interest or representation of urban wildlife. The Guardian’s environment page proved to be very resourceful in this aspect, there was a large quantity of articles relating to the subject.

The first story highlights a prominent issue with the expansive nature of wildlife within urban environments, many of which without any natural predators thus their populations are increasing at an enormous rate.

In essence, it defines the concept of nature’s connection and conflict with man, natural life forms are finding new and inventive ways to adapt in inter-city environments and therefore appear to be ‘reclaiming’ land.

Like many ecologists, I found the prospect of an increase in urban wildlife to a positive thing. I find the concept of natural life forms inhabiting urban areas that might be alien and unforgiving to be incredibly interesting, it encapsulates the essence of nature, the constant fight for survival.

Exotic army of invading wildlife changing the nature of UK cities

Previously unseen wildlife is colonising British cities but local authorities are concerned by the increase

First came the urban fox, then flocks of colourful tropical parakeets. But now deer, woodpeckers, hedgehogs, jackdaws, birds of prey and exotic spiders, fish and insects are colonising British cities, say wildlife experts.

Exotic wildlife

First came the urban fox, then flocks of colourful tropical parakeets. But now deer, woodpeckers, hedgehogs, jackdaws, birds of prey and exotic spiders, fish and insects are colonising British cities, say wildlife experts.

Previously unseen muntjac, roe and fallow deer now boldly enter inner-city areas such as Finsbury Park in north London and have been seen in cemeteries, gardens and golf courses on the outskirts of Edinburgh, Sheffield, Bristol, Guildford and Newcastle, says the London Wildlife Trust’s deputy director, Mathew Frith.

He gave a warning that people could soon expect to see wild boar in suburban streets and gardens: “It will not be too long before they impact on our urban areas. They have no natural predators, it is complicated to hunt them, and their numbers are increasing. We can expect them soon.”

Birds of prey, once common in cities, have this year returned in numbers. Red kites, extinct in England and Scotland by the 1800s and down to just a few pairs 20 years ago, are now not just seen flying over London and other cities, but have been found feeding in gardens in places such as Reading, Frith says.

In a remarkable turnaround from the polluted wildlife deserts of the 1970s, inner-city parks and private gardens are now attracting creatures once practically extinct in urban areas and providing habitats for wildlife seldom seen before in Britain.

The invaders, which are mostly welcomed by ecologists but worry local authorities as their numbers increase, are becoming bolder every year as they fill ecological niches.

Jackdaws have been found raiding pigeons’ nests on the British Museum and the National Gallery, and peregrine falcons, which were almost exterminated by the use of pesticides after the second world war, have taken to nesting in the Houses of Parliament, Tate Modern and the O2 arena, as well as on tower blocks and housing estates.

“They used to be persecuted, but now they are returning,” says Frith. “Twelve years ago there were no breeding pairs at all. But now we have eight to 10 pairs in London.”

Smaller animals and birds once rare in cities are also thriving, says ecologist Tony Canning, who works at the Camley Gardens nature reserve near King’s Cross in north London. He attributes some of the increase in urban wildlife to a declining use of pesticides by gardeners. “Sales shot up in the 1980s gardening boom, but people don’t use so much now,” he says.

Increasingly urbanised landscapes are thought to be of mixed value for birds, with species such as pigeons and chaffinches able to survive in these environments, while others, such as the swift, starling and song thrush, are in decline.

One of the most successful urban birds may be the tropical ring-necked parakeet, which colonised Esher in Surrey years ago and is becoming widespread in urban areas in the Midlands. “We now have great spotted woodpeckers right in the centre of cities. I saw one flying over London Bridge last week,” says Frith.

Exotic animals have often been brought to London and to British port cities on boats, but they seldom breed. But no one can explain how a self-sustaining colony of non-venomous metre-long Aesculapian snakes has come to live near the canal in Regent’s Park. They normally eat birds and eggs, but appear to be feeding on rodents.

Hundreds of terrapins, which can live for up to 60 years, are known to inhabit British cities following the craze over the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles TV show in the 1990s. This year a mink was spotted in an artificial lake in Thamesmead, one of London’s most deprived communities. “What we are seeing especially is new insects. The red-eyed damselfly was virtually unknown a few years ago. Now it’s in central London. Wasp spiders are spreading everywhere,” says Canning.

Milder winters are thought to have extended the range of insects and spiders to London and southern England cities. Jersey moths and exotic, brightly coloured wasp spiders, almost unheard of a few years ago, have spread from the continent, and red-eyed damselflies, first spotted in Britain in 1999, are now common on London’s waterways.

In August a rarely seen long-tailed blue butterfly was found trying to establish a breeding territory in East India Dock. It is possible that it came off a boat, but just as likely that warmer winters have made it possible for it to survive.

Ecologists cannot say if the present boom in wildlife is because species are being driven out of the countryside or because cities are becoming more attractive. “We have lost some urban habitats, like old industrial sites, and a lot of front gardens have been concreted over,” says Canning. “But a huge amount of conservation work has been done in nature reserves in the past 20 years.”

Equally, thousands of ponds in the countryside have been filled, but frogs and newts now find it easier to live in cities because pesticides are used less.

The work of local authorities may also be encouraging wildlife. Tens of thousands of street and park trees were planted in the 1950s and 1960s in British cities and many of these are nearing maturity, offering new habitats for many types of birds such as magpies, which only nest above 25ft.

But not all new urban wildlife in urban areas is welcome. Last week scientists from Queen Mary College, University of London, said that almost 100 freshwater species not native to the UK have invaded the river Thames catchment area, costing hundreds of millions of pounds to eradicate. They include Chinese mitten crabs, zebra mussels, Asiatic clams and other species which can rapidly multiply and take over the habitats of native wildlife and infest waterways.

The recolonisation of British cities parallels what is happening elsewhere in Europe and also the US. Wolves have been found within 25 miles of Rome, and wild boars are now so common in Berlin that the city authorities have issued hunting licences.

American scientists warned last week that wolves, mountain lions and wild dogs could soon be a common sight in densely populated cities. “Raccoons, skunks, foxes – they’ve already been able to penetrate the urban landscape pretty well. The coyote is the most recent and largest. The jury’s out with what’s going to happen with the bigger ones,” said Dr Stan Gehrt of Ohio State University, who has been tracking the wild dogs.

“It used to be rural areas where we would have this challenge of coexistence versus conflict with carnivores. In the future, and I would say currently, it’s cities where we’re going to have this intersection between people and carnivores. Overall, I think it is amazing what is happening. If we give a bit of room here and there, nature does its own thing. We are finding many animals are surprisingly tolerant of what humans do.”

This news story is more informative and straight forward, highlighting some of the best places to spot urban wildlife in UK cities. I applied the most attention towards Manchester, which resulted in an overview of potential areas for future sightings, some of which validated areas I had previously visited, others emphasised new places to consider:

  • Moston Fairway
  • Astley Moss
  • Brockholes
  • Woolston Eyes

I also noticed the sheer quantity of featured photographs sourced from stock photography websites. This is a pattern that emerged throughout a great deal of my previous and current research. It could be worth considering the possibly of submitting more general, simple examples of my landscape and wildlife images for use in digital publications.

Britain’s best urban wildlife sites

Tips on where to find the wild creatures in UK cities, from otters in the Glaswegian stretch of the Clyde to peregrine falcons in the City of London
A Red Deer stags stands in the early morning mist in Richmond Park

A Red Deer stags stands in the early morning mist in Richmond Park Photograph: Dan Kitwood/Getty Images


From Wimbledon Common in the west to Rainham Marshes in the east, the capital is packed with excellent wildlife sites. The home of the Wombles is superb for woodland birds, mammals, and insects including stag beetles, while the RSPB reserve at Rainham attracts a wide range of breeding and wintering birds. Richmond Park and Bushy Park are home to herds of red and fallow deer while a more recent arrival, ring-necked parakeets, screech around their airspace. Check out the WWT’s London Wetland Centre in Barnes for a wealth of birdlife, including wintering bitterns and summering peregrine falcons, kingfishers and sand martins. The river Thames can be excellent for birds, including little egrets, cormorants and great crested grebes, while dragonflies and damselflies are common in summer. In central London, keep an eye out for peregrines over the Barbican Centre and perching on Tate Modern on the South Bank.


Adult female hen harrier

Hen harrier hotograph: Alamy
Manchester is perhaps not the best-known urban area for wildlife in the UK, although Moston Fairway, within the city boundaries, is a precious remnant of marshland. It is home to a wide range of wetland plants including southern marsh orchids, along with a wealth of bird and insect life. Outside the city centre, the Greater Manchester area extending north and west into Lancashire contains some truly excellent places to watch wildlife. To the west, Astley Moss is one of the last remaining areas of wet bog in the region, a haven for breeding curlews, whinchats and willow tits, along with wintering short-eared owls, hen harriers (pictured right) and merlins. Many other reserves in this area have been creatively developed from former industrial sites. Two of these lie alongside the M6 to the north and south of Manchester: Brockholes in Preston and Woolston Eyes near Warrington, both of which are home to a wide range of wetland birds.


Known for having more miles of canals than Venice, Birmingham’s wildlife is often overlooked. Moseley Bog and Joy’s Wood nature reserve to the south of the city centre is a great place to start. This childhood haunt of The Lord of the Rings author JRR Tolkien comprises an area of damp, boggy woodland with adjacent grassy areas. It is home to a wide range of breeding birds including several species of warbler from April onwards and a stunning display of bluebells from mid-April into May. On the eastern edge of the city, Park Hall is a mixture of woodland, farmland and wetland, with great crested newts, woodland and waterside plants in spring, and plenty of fungi in autumn. Rowley Hills is a new wildlife trust reserve, home to several species of grassland butterflies including marbled white, while Hill Hook in Sutton Coldfield and Moorcroft Wood in Moxley, Walsall are also well worth a visit.



Mink Photograph: Darin Smith/PALike so many British cities, Glasgow is built on a river – the Clyde – once ideal for creating an industrial powerhouse, and now excellent for wildlife. Kingfishers are regularly seen along the river, while farther downstream at Port Glasgow there are wintering waterbirds including divers, grebes and sea ducks. The city forefathers also created wildlife havens of their own, in the form of city parks. Pollok country park, three miles south of the city centre, was once a private estate, but is now open to all. Look out for a range of river creatures, including kingfishers, mink and even otters, though these are rarely seen during daylight hours. Perhaps the most surprising wildlife site of all is the Glasgow Necropolis, a fine Victorian cemetery on the hill east of St Mungo’s Cathedral. As well as the usual foxes and grey squirrels, the cemetery is also home to small numbers of roe deer.Red squirrel
Red squirrel Photograph: Alamy


Northern Ireland’s capital is, like London, Cardiff and Edinburgh, ideally situated for a range of wildlife, being both bisected by the river Lagan and right next to the sea. Bog Meadows nature reserve is the largest natural area in the city centre, and supports waterbirds including grey herons and kingfishers. During the spring and summer there are breeding sedge warblers and sand martins and a wonderful display of marshland plants including ragged robin, early purple orchid, marsh marigold and lady’s-smock. The bog is also excellent for dragonflies and damselflies. Just a few minutes’ drive from the city centre, the RSPB reserve at Belfast harbour is a superb place to see wintering birds from Siberia and Scandinavia, including ducks, geese and waders, while the Belfast Hills above the city are home to peregrines. For a chance to see the most exciting city resident, the red squirrel, check out Colin Glen forest park on the city’s western outskirts.


Kittiwake on nest with chick

Kittiwick with chicks on the Tyne bridge Photograph: AlamyEngland’s northernmost city is also one of the best urban areas in the UK for wildlife. Right in the city centre, kittiwakes nest on the metal structure of Tyne bridge. This is the most inland breeding colony of the ocean-going gull in the world and a welcome reminder of the sea. The Tyne is also an excellent site for otters, especially after dark, as is the Big Waters reserve. Situated north of the city centre, the latter is a large, reed-fringed lake, also home to woodland and freshwater birds. Farther north, Plessey Woods country park supports a small population of red squirrels, just managing to hang on here on one of the southern edges of their range. Back in the city centre, check out Jesmond Dene, an oasis of peace and quiet, and home to three delightful waterbirds: kingfisher, dipper and grey wagtail. Or head south of the Tyne into Gateshead to see red kites soaring majestically above the Metro Centre.


The city of the Beatles and the Liver Birds is surprisingly good for wildlife. The lake in Sefton Park, a 235-acre oasis of green in the city centre, is home to waterbirds including great crested grebes and cormorants, while water voles can sometimes be seen around the streams that run into the lake. Court Hey Park is excellent for woodland birds, including nuthatch and a range of breeding warblers in spring and summer. The park is also home to the National Wildflower Centre, a great place to learn about our native plants and flowers. But the jewel in Liverpool’s wildlife crown is without doubt the Mersey. Now that shipping traffic has declined, the river’s estuary supports vast flocks of wintering waders and wildfowl and is internationally important for pintail, teal, wigeon, shelduck, redshank and dunlin. At the mouth of the estuary, Seaforth nature reserve regularly attracts scarce and rare birds, including Leach’s petrels in autumn (usually after fierce north-westerly gales).


Scotland’s capital is famous for its annual festival, when crowds of visitors throng the streets, but it is also an excellent base for exploring a range of wildlife sites inside and outside the city. The Royal Botanic Garden is a good place to start, while south of Arthur’s Seat, Duddingston Loch is home to a wide range of waterbirds including wintering goldeneye and goosander, and breeding grey heron and sedge warbler. Further east, the Water of Leith which snakes through the city has a 12-mile walkway running alongside it. You have a good chance of seeing herons and kingfishers here and, if you are very lucky, otters. If you have time, it’s well worth taking a boat trip from South Queensferry out into the Firth of Forth, where, in spring and summer, you are likely to see seals, dolphins and a range of seabirds including puffins. You can also take a boat tour around the famous Bass Rock, one of the world’s largest and most spectacular gannet colonies.

Mountain hare in its summer coat

Mountain hare in its summer coat Photograph: Alamy


Sheffield is one of the greenest cities in Britain, with a range of excellent wildlife sites within the city and plenty of accessible places just outside its boundaries. Close to the centre, the Porter valley is a six-mile long wildlife corridor, passing through a range of locations including Endcliffe Park. Likely sightings include the riverine trio of grey wagtail, dipper and kingfisher, as well as a range of woodland birds including woodpeckers, nuthatch and treecreeper. To the south-west, Eccleshall Woods hosts a similar range of birds. Five miles south-east of the city, Orgreave Lakes, on the site of a former colliery, is a great site for waterbirds, especially wintering ducks. Sheffield is also on the very edge of one of the finest wilderness areas in central England, the Peak District. This national park is home to some scarce moorland species including mountain hare, short-eared owl, red grouse and hen harrier.


An urban fox in Bristol city centre

An urban fox in Bristol city centre Photograph: Ian Wade Photography/Getty Images/Flickr RFHome to the world-famous BBC Natural History Unit, it’s perhaps not surprising that Bristol is arguably the best place in Britain to watch urban wildlife. Foxes can often be seen around the city’s leafier suburbs such as Clifton, Redland and Cotham, while badgers are regular (if mainly nocturnal) visitors to parks and gardens in Stoke Bishop. Blaise Castle estate supports a wide range of woodland birds, plants and insects, as do Brandon Hill, closer to the city centre, and Leigh Woods and Ashton Court, just across Brunel’s famous Clifton suspension bridge. But without doubt, the city’s most treasured wildlife area is the magnificent Avon Gorge. This spectacular natural rock formation is home to breeding buzzards, ravens and peregrine falcons, the latter also regularly being seen perching on tall buildings in the city centre. The gorge also boasts some of Britain’s rarest tree species, including up to 20 different species of whitebeam.


The Welsh capital has always been good for wildlife, thanks to its position on the coast and wide range of habitats. Pontcanna Fields and Bute Park offer a range of woodland and wetland walks, with all the usual bird species you would expect. The river Taff, one of Wales’s largest rivers, runs right through the city centre before reaching the sea at Cardiff Bay, and is home to eels, sea trout and most exciting of all, Atlantic salmon, which can, in autumn, be seen leaping over Black weir in Bute Park. Two sites just outside the city are also worth a mention: to the west is Kenfig Dunes national nature reserve, near Porthcawl, with waterbirds including wintering bitterns. And to the east, the Newport Wetlands Reserve, which was created to mitigate environmental damage done by the Cardiff Bay development. The reserve is home to a wealth of wintering wildfowl and waders, including large numbers of wigeons, lapwings and dunlins.

Starlings over Brighton Pier

Starlings over Brighton Pier Photograph: Alamy

Brighton & Hove

This coastal city (one of Britain’s newest, created in 1997) is a wildlife haven, with a small but thriving population of badgers and the huge gathering of roosting starlings on Palace pier. This truly extraordinary spectacle occurs around dusk from November to March, and often attracts large crowds of tourists as well as birders. On a visit to Brighton marina keep an eye out for seabirds offshore: gannets, auks and skuas regularly pass by, especially during the peak migration seasons of spring and autumn. Being situated in the south-east of Britain, and close to the excellent wildlife habitat of the South Downs, it’s hardly surprising that a wide range of breeding birds and butterflies can be found, including chalkland specialists such as Adonis, chalkhill and small blues. Their strongholds are just outside the city at Devil’s Dyke and other downland sites, but they do sometimes wander inside the city limits.

This article provides a more subjective, personal reflection of how social and national attitudes towards wildlife have changed and how the sightings of urban wildlife have increased and progressed in the last 50 years. It was quite compelling to gain some historical insight into the progressive introduction to natural life forms finding a new ways to inhabit urban areas, for better or worse. It symbolises the importance of restoration projects designed to repair some of physical and ecological damage caused by human interference. In addition to this, the significance of social awareness of preserving heritage sites and urban wildlife.

The changing wildlife of Britain’s cities

Charting the comings and goings of Britain’s city critters over the last 50 years

Badger Photograph: Les Stocker/Getty Images/Oxford Scientific

Just like any other aspect of the modern world, urban wildlife is subject to change. Species come and go, as their populations rise and fall. There are new arrivals, sometimes by natural means, others through human intervention. And from time to time a once thriving species will simply disappear.

I was born in 1960 and grew up in the west London suburbs, described by naturalist Kenneth Allsop as “that messy limbo which is neither town nor country”.

Allsop was writing just after the end of the second world war, and his subject was a small wading bird called a little ringed plover. These birds had just begun to colonise Britain. They were taking advantage of an unlikely new habitat: the gravel pits and reservoirs appearing in a ring around the western edge of the capital, where the M25 now runs.

The little ringed plover wasn’t the only bird using an unexpected new opportunity. Black redstarts, another new colonist from mainland Europe, found the ideal equivalent of their typical rocky habitat in the bomb sites that were dotted around London, and which remained undeveloped well into the 1950s. Once these had been built on, black redstarts turned to brownfield sites. They remain one of London’s star birds to this day.

My teenage years also saw the arrival of the most colourful newcomer to our city birdlife, the ring-necked parakeet. These comical birds have now become so numerous they have attained pest status; yet many Londoners have a great affection for them.

Other major UK cities have also seen big changes to their wildlife. The Tyne, once one of Britain’s most polluted rivers, is now home to salmon and otters, while the clean-up of the Mersey, Clyde and Tees has benefited nature in Liverpool, Glasgow and Middlesbrough respectively. Foxes have moved into many city centres to forage in our dustbins, while badgers retain a foothold in the wooded suburbs of Bristol and Brighton.

One of the most notable success stories is that of the peregrine. This avian equivalent of a Formula One racing car can now be seen in virtually every major British city.

It hasn’t all been good news. Once widespread birds such as the song thrush have suffered major falls in numbers, due partly to the increased use of slug pellets by gardeners. I can recall walking home from school on spring evenings during the 1970s and hearing singing thrushes on every other rooftop. Yet when I returned to live in the same area 30 years later, there were none to be found.

But the most dramatic decline of all, without doubt, has been that of the humble house sparrow, which has virtually disappeared from the centre of most British cities. Now that we are beginning to understand the complex reasons behind the decline, we may be just in time to save this iconic bird.

On balance, though, the future of our city creatures looks positive. During my lifetime I have seen a huge rise in appreciation of our natural heritage in general, and urban wildlife in particular. Many challenges remain – not least a growing population and the threat of climate change – but the good news is that we now care more about our natural neighbours than at any other time in our history.

My last article from the Guardian is a simple guideline of relevant books and websites relating to urban wildlife.

Urban wildlife resources


The Bumper Book of Nature Stephen Moss (Square Peg)
Family guide to nature, featuring activities for children.

Chris Packham’s Wild Side of Town Chris Packham (New Holland)
What to see and where to go in search of urban wildlife.

The Garden Bird Handbook Stephen Moss (New Holland)
How to identify and attract birds to your garden.

How to Make a Wildlife Garden Chris Baines (Frances Lincoln)
How to create a wildlife haven in your garden from scratch.

The New Amateur Naturalist Nick Baker (Collins)
Practical, hands-on guide to exploring the natural world.

Nick Baker’s Bug Book Nick Baker (New Holland)
Enthusiastic guide to all things small and creepy-crawly.

The Urban Birder David Lindo (New Holland)
Bird life on the wild side of London.

Usborne Spotter’s Guide: Urban Wildlife Diana Shipp (Usborne)
Ideal children’s guide to the wildlife of our towns and cities.


British Trust for Ornithology Runs scientific surveys of Britain’s bird populations.

Buglife Britain’s main insect and invertebrate conservation organisation.

Butterfly Conservation Dedicated to saving Britain’s butterflies and moths and their habitats.

The Mammal Society Devoted to research and conservation of all Britain’s mammal species.

National Trust Britain’s largest conservation charity, protecting green spaces as well as stately homes.

Plantlife Dedicated to saving Britain’s wild plants and their habitats.

RSPB Europe’s largest bird conservation organisation.

Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust This wetlands charity has nine centres in the UK, including the London Wetland Centre.

The Wildlife Trusts The national federation of 47 local trusts, each of which covers a particular county, region or in the case of Scotland, country.

The final article I am referring to was featured upon BBC Wildlife’s website. It relates to a series of photographs by Laurent Geslin, titled Urban Safari. Within them, Geslin aims to document various cities and their urban biodiversity.

I admired the series, each image offers its own distinct compositional style yet maintains a contextually relevant and cohesive narrative that constantly reaffirms of the animal’s relation to its surrounding city environments. It serves as a reminder that wildlife can inhabit and survive in the same environments as us, it can sometimes be as simple as looking in our own backyard.

Geslin Laurent 001.030 Geslin Laurent 002.040 Geslin Laurent 003.044

About the photographer

After working as a nature guide in France, South Africa and Namibia, Laurent Geslin moved to London, where he began to photograph wildlife in the city.

Taking advantage of his stops in the capital between assignments, he gradually came to document the city’s urban biodiversity.

His unique “Urban Safari” project was conducted across major European cities, with the aim of highlighting and protecting their biodiversity, and allowed him to photograph foxes, beech marten, badgers, wild boars and even bears.

Laurent’s photography has been published in numerous books and magazines, and his latest book Urban Safari, is out now.

Overall, I would assert that this research has proved to be quite constructive in focusing upon various aspects relating to urban wildlife. I will continue my research.


2 thoughts on “Research: Urban Wildlife

  1. joanne says:

    Please can you help us do some research up in manchester maybe? in particular the broadhurst clough wetland sbi which is under increasing threat from flytippers and an encroaching football stadium that is being built adjacent on the fields be great to hear from you, if you could post a contact email on here that would be great….
    We found devils bit scabious the other day!

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